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Russia Engages the World, 1453-1825
1453 Through the Reign of Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584) The Time of Troubles to the First Romanovs (1598-1682) Peter the Great and His Legacy (1682-1762) The Age of Catherine the Great (1762-1801) The Reign of Emperor Alexander I (1801-1825)


Explore this Section:

From the Fall of Constantinople to the Reign of Ivan the Terrible: A Summary of Russian History
Russia Symbol Introduction
Russia Symbol Prior to 1453
Russia Symbol The Period of Mongol Invasion and Rule, 1237–1480
Russia Symbol Muscovy Emerges as a Power
Russia Symbol 1453–1584: Moscow Becomes the "Third Rome"
Russia Symbol Ivan IV Descends into Madness
From the Fall of Constantinople to the Reign of Ivan the Terrible: A Summary of World History
World Symbol
World Symbol
Special Features

Russia's Globalization:
A Key

Events marked Russia Symbol are specific to Muscovy/Russia's internal development.
Those marked World Symbol are important world historical or cultural events.
Engagement Symbol indicates specific points of sociocultural or military engagement between Muscovy/Russia and foreign powers or individuals.



 Russia Symbol     From the Fall of Constantinople to the Reign of Ivan the Terrible A Summary of Russian History

The contacts of the East Slavs with the world beyond the borders of their territory were long, extensive, and defining. The first Russian state was founded in the 9th century by Vikings from Scandinavia in the north; Kievan Rus' received its religious and cultural orientation from the Byzantine Empire in the south; trading and cultural relations were established with European countries in the west; and a series of fierce nomadic tribes from the east had threatened the territory since the 7th century B.C.E., with the Mongols destroying Kievan Rus' in the 13th century C.E. Under Mongol domination, Russians were cut off from their previous international contacts until the 15th century, when a new state, Muscovy, slowly began to emerge from isolation.