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Russia Engages the World, 1453-1825
1453 Through the Reign of Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584) The Time of Troubles to the First Romanovs (1598-1682) Peter the Great and His Legacy (1682-1762) The Age of Catherine the Great (1762-1801) The Reign of Emperor Alexander I (1801-1825)


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Engagement Symbol
Sofiia Palaeologus
Russia Symbol
Ivan IV, "the Terrible"
World Symbol
Leonardo da Vinci
World Symbol
Süleyman I, "the Magnificent"
Special Features

Russia's Globalization: A Key

Events marked Russia Symbol are specific to Muscovy/Russia's internal development.
Those marked World Symbol are important world historical or cultural events.
Engagement Symbol indicates specific points of sociocultural or military engagement between Muscovy/Russia and foreign powers or individuals.



Engagement Symbol    Sofiia Palaeologus

Zoë Palaeologus (b. ca. 1450), the niece of the last Byzantine Emperor, was raised in Italy by Pope Paul II, who proposed that she wed Grand Prince Ivan III (r. 1462–1505). The marriage took place in 1472 in the Orthodox rite, and Zoë assumed the name of Sofiia. She quickly adapted to her new home, although she thought it backward compared to Italy. To elevate Muscovy’s political culture, she introduced the ceremonies, dress, and symbols of the Byzantine Empire – whose mantle Muscovy later claimed. Sofiia gave birth to her first son, Vasilii (r. 1505–33), in 1479, and helped him gain the throne and defeat the rival heir, Ivan III's grandson Dmitrii (1483–1509). Vasilii III took the throne in 1505, after Ivan III's death, and continued his father's policy of unifying all of Russia.