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Russia Engages the World, 1453-1825
1453 Through the Reign of Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584) The Time of Troubles to the First Romanovs (1598-1682) Peter the Great and His Legacy (1682-1762) The Age of Catherine the Great (1762-1801) The Reign of Emperor Alexander I (1801-1825)


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Russia Symbol Expanding Borders: The Tsardom of Muscovy, ca. 1500
World Symbol
Western Europe Looks at Muscovy
Russia Symbol The Period of Mongol Invasion and Rule,
Special Features

Russia's Globalization: A Key

Events marked Russia Symbol are specific to Muscovy/Russia's internal development.
Those marked World Symbol are important world historical or cultural events.
Engagement Symbol indicates specific points of sociocultural or military engagement between Muscovy/Russia and foreign powers or individuals.

Russia Symbol  
Expanding Borders: The Tsordom of Muscovy, ca. 1500

    Expanding Borders:The Tsardom of Muscovy, ca. 1500

During the dynamic reign of Ivan III (r. 1462–1505), the territories controlled by the Tsardom of Muscovy expanded significantly. Formerly independent principalities, such as Novgorod, were absorbed by mutual agreement, purchase, annexation, or conquest, adding territories to the west, north, and east. Ivan even established a port on the Gulf of Finland, providing his state with direct access to the sea. Novgorod itself had long-standing economic relations with European cities as the easternmost member of the Hanseatic League, a trading association. (Ivan III closed the Hanseatic settlement in Novgorod in 1494.)