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Russia Engages the World, 1453-1825
1453 Through the Reign of Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584) The Time of Troubles to the First Romanovs (1598-1682) Peter the Great and His Legacy (1682-1762) The Age of Catherine the Great (1762-1801) The Reign of Emperor Alexander I (1801-1825)


Explore this Section:

  Russia Events
Russia Symbol The June Coup (June 28, 1762)
Russia Symbol Red Convocation of the Legislative Commission (1767)
Russia Symbol Pugachev Rebellion (1773–74)
Russia Symbol Charter of the Towns (1785)
Russia Symbol Founding of the Smolnyi Institute
  World Events
World Symbol
The French Revolution Begins, 1789
World Symbol Revolt on the Island of Saint-Domingue (present-day Haiti), 1791
World Symbol
The French Expedition to Egypt, 1798–99
World Symbol
The French Civil Code Is Issued, 1804

Russia's Globalization:
A Key

Events marked Russia Symbol are specific to Muscovy/Russia's internal development.
Those marked World Symbol are important world historical or cultural events.
Engagement Symbol indicates specific points of sociocultural or military engagement between Muscovy/Russia and foreign powers or individuals.




Exhilarating as the revolution was for many in France, it also caused much hardship and created numerous victims. The execution of King Louis XVI (r. 1774–93), followed by that of his Queen, Marie Antoinette (1755–1793), and many nobles, was of greatest impact. It mobilized the ruling monarchs into forming coalitions and waging war on France. The violence also contributed to giving birth to extremist political doctrines and ideologies in opposition to the ideals and values proclaimed by the revolution. Throughout the 19th century and well into the 20th, the resulting ideological conflict shaped political debate and culture in Europe, and spread to other continents.