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Russia Engages the World, 1453-1825
1453 Through the Reign of Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584) The Time of Troubles to the First Romanovs (1598-1682) Peter the Great and His Legacy (1682-1762) The Age of Catherine the Great (1762-1801) The Reign of Emperor Alexander I (1801-1825)


Explore this Section:

  Russia Events
Russia Symbol The June Coup (June 28, 1762)
Russia Symbol Red Convocation of the Legislative Commission (1767)
Russia Symbol Pugachev Rebellion (1773–74)
Russia Symbol Charter of the Towns (1785)
Russia Symbol Founding of the Smolnyi Institute
  World Events
World Symbol
The French Revolution Begins, 1789
World Symbol Revolt on the Island of Saint-Domingue (present-day Haiti), 1791
World Symbol
The French Expedition to Egypt, 1798–99
World Symbol
The French Civil Code Is Issued, 1804

Russia's Globalization:
A Key

Events marked Russia Symbol are specific to Muscovy/Russia's internal development.
Those marked World Symbol are important world historical or cultural events.
Engagement Symbol indicates specific points of sociocultural or military engagement between Muscovy/Russia and foreign powers or individuals.




The reach and impact of revolutionary ideas that so unnerved Catherine and other European monarchs is reflected in the revolt, and eventual independence (1804), of slaves and free people of color in this former French island colony.

The seeds of independence were first sown among free black soldiers sent by the white French governors to fight against the British in the American War of Independence, where they were exposed to anti-colonial ideas. Later, the French Revolution's notions of liberty, equality, and brotherhood inspired an independence movement among the minority white settlers and a highly fragmented socioeconomic mix of free blacks. When the white population defied an order from France to enfranchise free blacks, it triggered a violent revolt that involved changing alliances among free blacks and the large slave population. After promulgating a constitution in 1801 and overcoming a military force sent by Napoleon (First Consul, 1799–1804; Emperor, 1804–14/15), Haiti successfully declared its independence. Its success, along with that of the American War of Independence, inspired a number of anti-colonial struggles throughout Latin America.