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Russia Engages the World, 1453-1825
1453 Through the Reign of Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584) The Time of Troubles to the First Romanovs (1598-1682) Peter the Great and His Legacy (1682-1762) The Age of Catherine the Great (1762-1801) The Reign of Emperor Alexander I (1801-1825)


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Russia's Globalization: A Key

Events marked Russia Symbol are specific to Muscovy/Russia's internal development.
Those marked World Symbol are important world historical or cultural events.
Engagement Symbol indicates specific points of sociocultural or military engagement between Muscovy/Russia and foreign powers or individuals.

Ivan the Terrible
Russia Symbol   A Russian Ladder to Heaven
    A Russian Ladder to Heaven
NYPL, Spencer Collection

Russia Symbol   Russia Looks at the World
    Russia Looks at the World
NYPL, Map Division

Russia Symbol   Gospels for a Russian National Saint?
    Gospels for a Russian National Saint?
NYPL, Spencer Collection

Russia Symbol   Ivan the Terrible
    Ivan the Terrible
NYPL, Slavic and Baltic Division

Photographic Services & Permissions
Russia Symbol     Ivan the Terrible

Portrety, gerby i pechati Bolshoi gosudarstvennoi knigi 1672 g. [Portraits, Coats of Arms and Official Seals in the Great State Book of 1672]
St. Petersburg: Izd-vo Peterburgskgoi arkheologicheskago instituta, 1903
NYPL, Slavic and Baltic Division

Ivan came to the throne at the age of three and experienced a harrowing childhood; his mother was poisoned, and he was mistreated at the hands of boyars. These early years probably induced the sadism and paranoia that later emerged as a part of Ivan's personality. His reign is usually divided into the "good" and "bad" parts. During the "good" part (c. 1549-1562), he was advised by a Chosen Council that included his beloved wife Anastasiia Romanovna Zakharina (1530-1560), and a number of political, military, and ecclesiastical reforms were carried out, including the convening of a zemskii sobor to advise on taxation, law codes, and war policy. In the "bad" part (c. 1562-1584), Ivan carried out a reign of terror against the boyars. Ivan waged successful wars of expansion East-opening up Siberia to conquest-but failed miserably in a lengthy war against Poland, Lithuania, and Sweden for territories with access to the Baltic Sea.