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Russia Engages the World, 1453-1825
1453 Through the Reign of Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584) The Time of Troubles to the First Romanovs (1598-1682) Peter the Great and His Legacy (1682-1762) The Age of Catherine the Great (1762-1801) The Reign of Emperor Alexander I (1801-1825)


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The Age of Catherine the Great: A Summary of Russian History
Russia Symbol Introduction
Russia Symbol The Husband
Russia Symbol The Enlightened Absolutist Monarch
Russia Symbol Catherine's Foreign Policy
Russia Symbol Paul I
The Age of Catherine the Great: A Summary of World History
The Americas

Russia's Globalization:
A Key

Events marked Russia Symbol are specific to Muscovy/Russia's internal development.
Those marked World Symbol are important world historical or cultural events.
Engagement Symbol indicates specific points of sociocultural or military engagement between Muscovy/Russia and foreign powers or individuals.



   An English Cleric Roams Northern Europe

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  William Coxe (1747–1828)
Travels into Poland, Russia, Sweden, and Denmark
London: Printed by J. Nichols, for T. Cadell, 1784
NYPL, Slavic and Baltic Division

William Coxe visited Russia in 1778, 1784, and 1805 and described what he saw in a largely sympathetic manner. Nonetheless, he reacted negatively to the Russian form of government and could not accept the institution of serfdom. Shown here is Emil’ian Pugachev (ca. 1742–1775), an illiterate Cossack who in 1773 and 1774 fomented a series of rebellions in Siberia and the Ural mountains. He succeeded in capturing and sacking a number of major provincial cities and military garrisons before his own capture and public execution in Moscow. Pugachev’s revolt underlined some of the elements behind the deep-seated hostility between noble and serf, and between the central authorities and the provincial peasantry. Because of its critical attitude, Coxe’s book was banned in Russia, but appeared in six editions in England and was translated into five European languages.