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Russia Engages the World, 1453-1825
1453 Through the Reign of Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584) The Time of Troubles to the First Romanovs (1598-1682) Peter the Great and His Legacy (1682-1762) The Age of Catherine the Great (1762-1801) The Reign of Emperor Alexander I (1801-1825)


Explore this Section:

The Age of Catherine the Great: A Summary of Russian History
Russia Symbol Introduction
Russia Symbol The Husband
Russia Symbol The Enlightened Absolutist Monarch
Russia Symbol Catherine's Foreign Policy
Russia Symbol Paul I
The Age of Catherine the Great: A Summary of World History
The Americas

Russia's Globalization:
A Key

Events marked Russia Symbol are specific to Muscovy/Russia's internal development.
Those marked World Symbol are important world historical or cultural events.
Engagement Symbol indicates specific points of sociocultural or military engagement between Muscovy/Russia and foreign powers or individuals.




Two revolutionary events of worldwide importance dominated the last four decades of the 18th century. First, the Declaration of Independence and the American Revolution ultimately had the most fateful impact on both the Old and New Worlds. Second, and at first of particular concern to Europe, was the French Revolution, which broke out in 1789. It proclaimed the Rights of Man – i.e., equality before the law and the freedoms of opinion and religion – and the sovereignty of the Nation. These powerful concepts and ideals dominated the political stage and the discourse of Europe in the 19th century (and beyond it into the 20th).Europe was plunged into bloody wars that lasted for twenty years. In the process, French armies exported revolutionary ideas, as well as their legal and institutional implementation, wherever they appeared. Thus the socio-political framework of the old order in Europe was shaken to its roots. It inflamed the intellectual élites with nationalist and liberal goals and passions.
  The Costume of Russia’s Many Peoples, on Paper
NYPL, Spencer Collection

  Venice Welcomes the Tsarevich
NYPL, Spencer Collection

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