This website is part of The New York Public Library's Online Exhibition Archive. For current classes, programs, and exhibitions, please visit
Russia Engages the World, 1453-1825
1453 Through the Reign of Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584) The Time of Troubles to the First Romanovs (1598-1682) Peter the Great and His Legacy (1682-1762) The Age of Catherine the Great (1762-1801) The Reign of Emperor Alexander I (1801-1825)


Explore this Section:

The Age of Catherine the Great: A Summary of Russian History
Russia Symbol Introduction
Russia Symbol The Husband
Russia Symbol The Enlightened Absolutist Monarch
Russia Symbol Catherine's Foreign Policy
Russia Symbol Paul I
The Age of Catherine the Great: A Summary of World History
The Americas

Russia's Globalization:
A Key

Events marked Russia Symbol are specific to Muscovy/Russia's internal development.
Those marked World Symbol are important world historical or cultural events.
Engagement Symbol indicates specific points of sociocultural or military engagement between Muscovy/Russia and foreign powers or individuals.



   Russia’s Flora

   Photographic Services & Permissions
  Rhododendron, from:
Peter Simon Pallas (1741–1811)
Flora Rossica [The Flora of Russia]
St. Petersburg: J. J. Weitbrecht, 1784–88
NYPL, Slavic and Baltic Division

The German naturalist Peter Simon Pallas based his work on observations in western Siberia during the “Academy Expedition” of 1768–74. A pioneering work of Russian botany, Flora Rossica remained unfinished, comprising only flowers found east of the Ural Mountains. In addition to the printed edition of Flora Rossica, the Library also holds 104 original drawings by the artist Karl Friedrich Knappe (1745–1808), from which the plates for the Flora were made.