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Russia Engages the World, 1453-1825
1453 Through the Reign of Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584) The Time of Troubles to the First Romanovs (1598-1682) Peter the Great and His Legacy (1682-1762) The Age of Catherine the Great (1762-1801) The Reign of Emperor Alexander I (1801-1825)


Explore this Section:

Russia's Globalization:
A Key

Events marked Russia Symbol are specific to Muscovy/Russia's internal development.
Those marked World Symbol are important world historical or cultural events.
Engagement Symbol indicates specific points of sociocultural or military engagement between Muscovy/Russia and foreign powers or individuals.

Peter’s Triumph
Engagement Symbol   Russian Conquests, 1734: A German Depiction
    Russian Conquests, 1734: A German Depiction
NYPL, Slavic and Baltic Division
Russia Symbol   Peter’s Triumph
    Peter’s Triumph
NYPL, Map Division
Russia Symbol   A Mature Peter
    A Mature Peter
Slavic and Baltic Division

Engagement Symbol   Russians Learn the Art of French Fortifications
    Russians Learn the Art of French Fortifications
NYPL, Slavic and Baltic Division

World Symbol   Mapping Muslim Kingdoms
    Mapping Muslim Kingdoms
NYPL, Map Division

World Symbol   India’s Mughal Treasure-House
    India’s Mughal Treasure-House
NYPL, General Research Division
 Photographic Services & Permissions

Engagement Symbol    Peter’s Triumph

Cornelius Cruys (1657–1727)
Nieuw pas-kaart boek [A New Book of Charts]
Amsterdam: Hendrick Doncker, [1703–4]
NYPL, Map Division

In this allegorical title-page image, the foot of a youthful Tsar Peter rests on the maroon and gold crescent ensign of the Ottoman Empire, an allegory for his wresting of the Crimean city of Azov from the Ottomans in 1696. The River Don (in classical Greek, Tanais) is characterized by a merman with a horn of plenty from which flows its wealth.

Born Niles Olufson Olsen in Stavanger, Norway, Cornelius Cruys rose in the Dutch maritime service to a senior position at the Admiralty in Amsterdam. There, in 1697, he met Tsar Peter, who appointed him the first vice-admiral of the nascent Russian navy. An accomplished hydrographer, he produced this book of charts, the only example of his work known to survive.