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Russia Engages the World, 1453-1825
1453 Through the Reign of Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584) The Time of Troubles to the First Romanovs (1598-1682) Peter the Great and His Legacy (1682-1762) The Age of Catherine the Great (1762-1801) The Reign of Emperor Alexander I (1801-1825)


Explore this Section:

Russia's Changing Borders, 1689, 1725, and 1796
Engagement Symbol
Russian Conquests, 1734: A German Depiction
Moscow as the Center of the Russian World
Engagement Symbol St. Petersburg, 1718: An Early German Depiction
The Dutch Depict Russia’s Northern Rivals
Mapping the Safavid Empire

Russia's Globalization:
A Key

Events marked Russia Symbol are specific to Muscovy/Russia's internal development.
Those marked World Symbol are important world historical or cultural events.
Engagement Symbol indicates specific points of sociocultural or military engagement between Muscovy/Russia and foreign powers or individuals.



    Mapping the Safavid Empire

   Photographic Services & Permissions
  Johann Baptist Homann (1663–1724)
Imperii Persici in omnes suas Provincias [The Persian Empire and All Its Territories]
Nuremberg, early 18th century
NYPL, Slavic and Baltic Division, Bates-Pantuhoff Collection

This map of the Safavid Persian Empire – rather circumscribed by the 18th century – outlines the empire’s provinces in brightly hand-colored sections. Also depicted are Russia, and Persia’s West Asian neighbors the Ottoman (Turcici) and Mughal (Mogilici) empires. Central Asia (Turckestan) is ornamented with images of camels and a Kazak yurt. “Uzbek Bukhara” and Persia’s small khanates are shown along the Caspian Sea. The cartouche at bottom left features a colorful allegorical scene, perhaps representing ancient King Darius and his gold coinage.