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Russia Engages the World, 1453-1825
1453 Through the Reign of Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584) The Time of Troubles to the First Romanovs (1598-1682) Peter the Great and His Legacy (1682-1762) The Age of Catherine the Great (1762-1801) The Reign of Emperor Alexander I (1801-1825)


Explore this Section:

Peasant Revolts
Church Schism (Raskol)
Origins of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment

Russia's Globalization:
A Key

Events marked Russia Symbol are specific to Muscovy/Russia's internal development.
Those marked World Symbol are important world historical or cultural events.
Engagement Symbol indicates specific points of sociocultural or military engagement between Muscovy/Russia and foreign powers or individuals.



     Origins of the Scientific  Revolution and the Enlightenment

Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) provided the mathematical formulas for the laws of the motion of planetary and physical bodies. Building on the 16th century Copernican hypothesis that the earth and planets revolved around the sun, the observations of Tycho Brahe (1546–1601), and the calculations of Johannes Kepler (1571–1630), Galileo's formulas put to rest the earth-centric notion of the universe put forward by the second-century astronomer Ptolemy—a notion that underlay European thinking about the universe for centuries. The philosophy of Francis Bacon (1561–1626) and the physico-mathematical work of René Descartes (1596–1650) and Blaise Pascal (1623–1662) enabled Isaac Newton (1642–1727) to state in 1665–66 that gravity accounts for the motion and structure of the universe.

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