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Russia Engages the World, 1453-1825
1453 Through the Reign of Ivan the Terrible (1533-1584) The Time of Troubles to the First Romanovs (1598-1682) Peter the Great and His Legacy (1682-1762) The Age of Catherine the Great (1762-1801) The Reign of Emperor Alexander I (1801-1825)


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Engagement Symbol
Napoleonic Europe, ca. 1812
Engagement Symbol
Depicting St. Petersburg, 1806

Russia's Globalization:
A Key

Events marked Russia Symbol are specific to Muscovy/Russia's internal development.
Those marked World Symbol are important world historical or cultural events.
Engagement Symbol indicates specific points of sociocultural or military engagement between Muscovy/Russia and foreign powers or individuals.


  Napoleonic Europe, ca. 1812

On the eve of Napoleon's advance on Moscow, Napoleon had succeeded in redrawing the borders of continental Europe. The French emperor and his empire controlled vast territories, either directly or through relatives and allies in Italy, Spain, and Holland, among other lands and peoples. By marrying into the House of Habsburg, he also succeeded in securing the neutrality of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, while treaties kept the Swiss Confederation and the Grand Duchy of Warsaw in Napoleon's orbit.