This website is part of The New York Public Library's Online Exhibition Archive. For current classes, programs, and exhibitions, please visit

The New York Public Library

3.gif (141034 bytes)
Photographic Services & Permissions

Reynaldo Clemeña Ileto. Pasyon and Revolution: Popular Movements in the Philippines, 1840–1910. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1979.
NYPL, General Research Division

Ileto's modern treatment of the secret codes, symbolism, and language of the Katipunan has greatly contributed to an understanding of the movement's underlying semi-religious appeals and popular support. This triangular sketch demonstrates that the movement was organized in a sophisticated way in order to guarantee secrecy. Ultimately the movement was led by Aguinaldo, who promoted Western precepts of liberty, equality, and fraternity, and maintained a firm authority over the movement's leadership even during its temporary exile in Hong Kong.

IntroductionChronology | Part I: Antecedents, 1895-1898 | Part II: Public Appeals, 1898 | Part III: Popular Participation, 1898-1899 | Part IV: Public Memories Part V: Historical PerspectivesAudiovisual Components | Exhibition Checklist | AcknowledgmentsSuggested Reading /About the Library Shop | Related Exhibits/Spanish American War Websites of Interest | Exhibition home page | NYPL Exhibitions

Privacy Policy | Rules and Regulations | Using the Internet | Website Terms and Conditions | © The New York Public Library

EPO, 1998