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Prints With/Out Pressure

Artists N-Z

Thomas Nason (American, 1889–1971)

A self-taught artist, Thomas Nason produced more than six hundred wood engravings in his lifetime. Born and raised on a farm in Massachusetts, he taught himself to draw at a young age. He spent his early adulthood working at clerical jobs, visiting local printsellers in his spare time. At age thirty-two, he set up a small printshop in his home and began to earn a living from commissions for bookplates and book and magazine illustrations. In the 19th century, wood engraving was the preferred medium for book illustration, but by the turn of the 20th century it had lost favor to cheaper, less labor-intensive techniques. Nason revived this technique to reinforce the nostalgic charm of his rural scenes and New England landscapes.

Thomas Nason (American, 1889–1971)
Summer Storm
Color wood engraving, 1940
Friends of the Print Room, purchased from the artist

This view of Lyme, Connecticut, was printed from three blocks in black, gray-green, and olive-colored inks. Unlike many other artists working with color printmaking at this time, Nason used subtle tones to produce a chiaroscuro effect. He printed all his wood engravings himself, and pulled hundreds of impressions of Summer Storm before assembling an edition to his satisfaction.


Leonard Nelson (American, 1912–1993)

Leonard Nelson was born in Camden, New Jersey, and studied at Auburn University, Alabama, the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, and the Barnes Foundation. While stationed in Texas during service in the Army, and during a subsequent trip to Mexico, he encountered Native American and Pre-Columbian art, which influenced him to experiment with primitive, hieroglyphic forms in his paintings and prints. Although he lived primarily in Philadelphia, he associated with the group of New York School artists who were the first generation of Abstract Expressionists. He went on to frequent Stanley William Hayter’s printshop, Atelier 17, where his inventive approach to printmaking was encouraged; this experience, coupled with meeting Willem de Kooning in 1948, introduced gestural marks into his intaglio prints and screenprints. Nelson took an unorthodox approach to teaching art: to inspire students’ experimentation, he created several devices composed of flat surfaces on which multicolored shapes and a variety of objects could be continually rearranged. In 1951 he became an instructor at Moore College of Art, where he taught for the next thirty years.

Leonard Nelson (American, 1912–1993)
Dance to Midzime
Woodcut, 1948
Norrie Fund

Nelson was frequently inspired by jazz, and many of his prints have a lively sense of rhythm and improvisation. Dance to Midzime was awarded a jury prize by the Philadelphia Print Club in 1948.

 

Harold Persico Paris (American, 1925–1979)

Harold Paris grew up immersed in the Yiddish theater community, of which his father was part. Born in Edgemere, Long Island, he was a primarily self-taught artist who became a sculptor and printmaker. During service in the Army, he created models for the Corps of Engineers and learned to work with plastics. He studied and taught during his travels in Europe, funded by Guggenheim and Fulbright fellowships, and made prints at workshops in New York, including Stanley William Hayter’s Atelier 17. In 1960 he moved to California to teach at the University of California, Berkeley. At this time he also began to explore a wide range of materials for his sculptures, from bronze and ceramics to cast pieces of rubber, plaster, and plastic, which he frequently assembled into room-sized installations.

Harold Persico Paris (American, 1925–1979)
The Moloch Eats Every Day, from the Buchenwald Series
Lucite engraving, printed in relief, 1948
Gift of Shirley Paris

According to the Old Testament, Moloch was an ancient god to whom children were sacrificed by fire. He has appeared frequently in art and literature as a devourer of children, and has, over time, become generalized to signify a malevolent force that requires extreme sacrifice.

Harold Persico Paris (American, 1925–1979)
Verloren, from the Buchenwald Series
Lucite engraving, printed in relief, 1948
Gift of the artist

With no formal art training, Harold Paris established his reputation as a printmaker with his first suite of prints, the Buchenwald Series. While serving in the Army, he was a reporter for the military newspaper the Stars and Stripes, issued to soldiers overseas. He was assigned to cover the Nuremberg Trials and became deeply moved by accounts of the Holocaust, especially Buchenwald, one of the largest concentration camps in Germany.

For this series, he engraved nine images in Lucite, a medium popular in the 1940s and 50s. He inked and printed these plastic sheets like a woodcut, with the result that the engraved lines appear white, and the flat, raised surfaces printed black.

 

Helen Phillips (American, 1913–1995)

Born in Fresno, California, Helen Phillips studied sculpture at the California School of Fine Arts in San Francisco. In 1937, while in Paris on a scholarship, she began making prints at Atelier 17, under the guidance of Stanley William Hayter, whom she married in 1940. She and Hayter left Paris that year, and eventually moved to New York, remaining there until 1950, when they returned to Paris. After their divorce in 1970, Phillips divided her time between Paris and New York. In her sculpture she responded to the Surrealists and Brancusi, creating semi-abstract pieces, usually of polished bronze. She was an enthusiastic experimenter in the field of printmaking, and dedicated time and effort to devising a technique for printing multiple colors from one plate in one run through the press. Of her prints she once remarked: “My engravings are based on the human form, part animal, part human…. I do not apply the term abstraction to my work.”

Helen Phillips (American, 1913–1995)
Upon the Rock for Helen Phillips …, from the Ruthven Todd portfolio
New York: Atelier 17, 1947
Open bite etching, printed as a relief print

Helen Phillips (American, 1913–1995)
Upon the Rock for Helen Phillips …, from the Ruthven Todd portfolio
Open bite etching, printed as an intaglio print

 

Leona Pierce (American, 1921–2002)

Leona Pierce is known for her spirited color woodcuts of children at play. She was born in Santa Barbara, California, to schoolteacher parents. She studied in New York at the Art Students League and the New School under Yasuo Kuniyoshi and Stuart Davis. She achieved success early and by age thirty had widely exhibited her woodcuts and hand-printed textiles. Around that time she married fellow artist Antonio Frasconi, who shared her dedication to woodcut and her affinity for depictions of childhood.

Leona Pierce (American, 1921–2002)
Marbles
Color woodcut, ca. 1950
Norrie Fund, purchased from the artist


In 1951 Leona Pierce wrote to Karl Kup, the Library’s Print Curator from 1943 to 1968: “I wish to express my deep appreciation for your aid in my application for a Tiffany Foundation Grant. Yesterday, I received word that I am to receive one of the fellowships. Now I know that I will be able to continue my work as I had hoped to. Thank you again for your kind and invaluable assistance.” Kup was a great champion of this generation of American artists, and consistently acquired their work for the Library’s collection, sang their praises to fellowship committees, and personally welcomed them on their visits to the Print Room.

 

Bernard Reder (American, born Ukraine, 1897–1963)

Bernard Reder is known primarily as a sculptor of animated, baroque figures, although he was also a dedicated printmaker. He was born in Czernowitz, Bukovina (now part of Ukraine). After studying at the Academy of Fine Arts in Prague, he supported himself by carving cemetery monuments while sculpting in his spare time. At the suggestion of a friend, the sculptor Aristide Maillol, he moved to Paris. Four years later, with the outbreak of World War II, he joined the flood of Jewish refugees and traveled to the south of France. He soon fled, via Cuba, to New York, arriving in 1943. Two years later, after a serious illness left him partially paralyzed, Reder began to focus on drawings and woodcuts, frequently depicting biblical themes alongside more cryptic images that sprang from his own imagination. He carefully inked and printed his woodcuts himself, and although he printed standard editions, he often pulled only single impressions of his prints. He frequently traveled from his home in New York to Rome and Florence and created architectural designs in addition to his other artworks.

Bernard Reder (American, born Ukraine, 1897–1963)
Angels of the Earth, from The Story of Noah
Woodcut, 1948
Norrie Fund, purchased from Grace Borgenicht Gallery

This print is from a series of thirty-seven woodcuts based on the Old Testament figure Noah.

Bernard Reder (American, born Ukraine, 1897–1963)
Apocalypse of St. John
Set of 21 woodcuts, 1954
Cadwalader Fund

Apparition of Patmos
The False Prophet
The Four Horsemen
The Adoration of the Animal
The Babylonian Prostitute
The White Horse
Destruction of Babylon
The Kings of the Earth
Animal with Crown
One of the Seven Plagues
The Last Judgment
One of the Seven Plagues
The New Jerusalem
The Merchants
The Last Judgment
One of the Seven Plagues
Salvation of the Child
The Seven Angels
The Killers
Apparition with Four Animals
St. John

Reder’s experience as a sculptor is clearly manifest in this series of woodcuts. He treats the woodblock aggressively as a three-dimensional object, rather than simply a matrix for a two-tone image. By essentially sculpting the block to varying degrees of relief, often using improvised tools, he obtains printed textures and mid-tones not common to this medium. His choice of a biblical subject, a frequent theme throughout his oeuvre, affords him ample opportunity to demonstrate his profound knowledge of the human figure.

 

Luigi Rist (American, 1888–1959)

Luigi Rist is known for his still-lifes of fruit, vegetables, and flowers, made by the exacting Japanese woodblock printing technique. Born Louis Rist, he was raised in Newark, New Jersey. At age forty, he began to make prints. During a visit to an artist’s colony in Concarneau, France, he met printmaker Morris Blackburn, who became his friend and promoter. Back in New York, Blackburn invited him to an exhibition of Japanese prints, and Rist became so intrigued by them that he taught himself the process. Although historically Japanese printmaking was a collaborative effort between artist, block cutter, and printer, Rist assumed all the roles himself, designing, carving, and printing each of his own prints. Using a brush, he applied inks made from powdered pigments mixed with water and rice-flour paste, and hand-printed the blocks by pressing on the paper with a flat pad, called a baren. This method was different from the European mode of color printing, practiced by artists such as Gustave Baumann, which used thick oil-based inks and a press to print the wood blocks.

Luigi Rist (American, 1888–1959)
A Garden Opal
Color woodcut, 1943
Norrie Fund, purchased from the artist

In 1955, Rist explained his choice of subject matter: “My use of vegetable and flower subjects is deliberate, as the shapes and forms are basic and varied, and lend themselves to unlimited arrangements, textures, forms, colors and abstraction. Also, my prints are limited as to size, hence these forms appear on the prints in actual size, which gives them added importance, visually and pictorially.” Many of these subjects were grown by Rist’s wife, Ida.

Luigi Rist (American, 1888–1959)
Two Bunches of Grapes
Color woodcut, 1943
Norrie Fund, purchased from the artist

Rist printed approximately nine color blocks for Two Bunches of Grapes. He described his typical procedure thus: “In the cutting and carving of the several cherry blocks, of first importance is the key line block. The impressions from the key block control the register of the many impressions from the color blocks used to print one or more colors. Any number of blocks may be used to print a given print. Both sides of cherry wood boards are used, each side considered a block, and as many as ten to twenty blocks are cut and carved.”

 

Clare Romano (American, born 1922)

Trained as a painter at Cooper Union, Clare Romano made her first prints—lithographs—at Robert Blackburn’s Creative Lithographic Workshop in 1949. Her early urban subjects were replaced by landscapes when she left New York City for New Jersey, Truro, and Provincetown, where she and her family lived and spent their summers. She also switched her allegiance to the woodcut, developing imagery first in her paintings and drawings. Romano’s woodcuts show her appreciation for the texture of the wood block, and her penchant for creating a varied printed surface. In 1958, while in Italy on a Fulbright Grant, she began to use cardboard and paper to build her relief plates, and during a residence in Yugoslavia with the U.S. Information Agency in 1965–66, she perfected the collagraph technique, whereby she collaged materials (cardboard, cloth, found objects) onto the printing plate with a thick gesso or built up form with modeling paste. Romano has introduced generations of students to all aspects of printmaking as a professor at the New School, Pratt Graphics Center, and Pratt Institute, and as co-author with her husband, John Ross, of several important printmaking handbooks.

Clare Romano (American, born 1922)
Pebbles and Side Pools of Truro
Color woodcut, 1963; issued by the International Graphic Arts Society (IGAS), 1964
Bequest of Una Johnson

Describing this print for IGAS, Una Johnson noted that Romano “captures the muted greens, blacks and translucent yellows of the rocks and pebbles as they gleam through the quiet waves and diminishing tides. The resulting interweavings of lines and forms are deftly integrated into a strong but entirely pleasing design.”

 

John Ross (American, born 1921)

John Ross is an indefatigable printmaker—best known for his innovative use of cardboard—and author. He was born in New York and studied at Parsons School of Design and Cooper Union, where he met his future wife and frequent collaborator, Clare Romano. A stay in Italy while serving in the Air Force initiated an ongoing fascination with that country; he lived there for several extended periods, and Italian subjects played a major role in his work. An avid champion of hands-on instruction, he gave numerous printmaking demonstrations in the United States and abroad while serving as a representative for the United States Information Agency in Yugoslavia and Romania. He taught at several universities and chaired the Art Department at Manhattanville College in Purchase, New York. He has greatly influenced a new generation of printmakers through the books he co-authored with his wife. These printmaking manuals offer precise and thorough instructions on the technical processes of various forms of printmaking and have disseminated this knowledge to a wide, and appreciative, audience.

John Ross (American, born 1921)
Duomo
Color cardboard relief print, 1959
Norrie Fund

Ross used cardboard as a base for building up a textured surface in his collagraphs or, as here, treated it like a wood block for creating relief prints: “The flexibility of cardboard, its ease of cutting, and its availability make it an ideal material for a relief print…. The cardboard can be cut into and peeled away very much as wood is cut…. Varied color textures printed over each other can develop the color quality with great richness.”

 

Anne Ryan (American, 1889–1954)

Anne Ryan started out as a writer, publishing a volume of poetry and a novel in the 1920s. She lived in Greenwich Village, and many of her friends were writers, actors, and artists, including the painter Hans Hofmann and the sculptor Tony Smith, who encouraged her to paint. She experimented with the color woodcut between 1945 and 1949, and while her figurative subjects were influenced by the paintings of Georges Rouault, Matisse, CÚzanne, and Picasso, her abstract woodcuts show a kinship with the work of Stanley William Hayter, Hofmann, Jackson Pollock, and other friends associated with Abstract Expressionism. She preferred to make color woodcuts using only one block, though she occasionally used up to three. Like Louis Schanker she printed with oil-based paints, which she applied with her fingers and small rollers to make each print unique. She customarily printed on black paper, given to her by a photographer friend, densely layering thick pigments interspersed with thin glazes to realize varied surfaces and textures. After making more than one hundred woodcuts, in 1949 she turned to collage, and devoted herself to that medium until her death five years later.

Anne Ryan (American, 1889–1954)
Puerto
Color woodcut, 1945–49
Gift of Una Johnson

 

Lucia Autorino Salemme (American, born 1919)

A child of immigrant parents, Lucia Autorino was born in New York City at the end of World War I. She studied at the National Academy of Design as well as the Art Students League, and in 1940 was awarded a scholarship to study with Hilla Rebay at the Museum of Non-Objective Art—the original name of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. Autorino’s conservative style was transformed under the influence of the European-born Rebay, who introduced a generation of Americans, including Guggenheim, to the latest trends in abstraction. Like many others in this exhibition, Autorino worked for the Works Progress Administration (WPA) and taught at the Art Students League and New York University. She received a Pollock-Krasner grant in 2000 to support her living and working expenses for one year. She is the author of three books on painting.

Lucia Autorino Salemme (American, born 1919)
Little Black Abstraction
Linoleum cut, 1942
Friends of the Print Room

 

Louis Schanker (American, 1903–1981)

Louis Schanker was a key figure in the resurgence of interest in the color relief print. As a technically innovative printmaker and as a teacher, he influenced many of the artists in this exhibition. Trained at Cooper Union, the Education Alliance, and the Art Students League, he made his first woodcut in 1935, a challenging seven-color print, which already reflected his appreciation for the School of Paris (he traveled abroad from 1931 to 1933), German Expressionism, and the Japanese woodcut. Though his early imagery was figurative, his work became increasingly abstract, concerned with Cubist distortions of form and space, realized with bright colors and tactile surfaces. While a member of the Graphic Arts Division of the Federal Art Project, and later the supervisor of color woodblock printing there, he developed new printing techniques. He layered oil-based inks on top of each other, often before the previous layer had dried, to realize dense, inky surfaces; he also printed colors over black ink, giving the colors a special luminosity. For a time Schanker shared a teaching studio at the New School with Stanley William Hayter, another passionate experimenter, though with intaglio processes. Schanker believed that “The possibility of invention … is one of the most intriguing aspects of the woodcut.”

Louis Schanker (American, 1903–1981)
Forms in Action
Woodcut for Works Progress Administration, Federal Art Project, 1941
Gift to The New York Public Library

Louis Schanker (American, 1903–1981)
Indian Dance
Color woodcut for Works Progress Administration, Federal Art Project, 1941
Gift to The New York Public Library

Louis Schanker (American, 1903–1981)
Skaters
Color woodcut for Works Progress Administration, Federal Art Project, 1941
Gift to The New York Public Library

Louis Schanker (American, 1903–1981)
Static & Revolving
Color woodcut, 1945–46
Norrie Fund, purchased from the artist

With this print, Schanker began a series of studies of circular movement. He explored variations on this image throughout the 1950s.

Louis Schanker (American, 1903–1981)
Circle Image
Color woodcut, 1952
Norrie Fund, purchased from the artist


Louis Schanker (American, 1903–1981)
Circle Image
Color woodcut, issued by the International Graphic Arts Society (IGAS), 1952
Norrie Fund

 

Reba Stewart (American, 1930–1971)

Abandoned at an early age, Reba Stewart grew up in Florida and moved to Boston at age eighteen, supporting herself by odd jobs while attending the School of the Museum of Fine Arts. She began as a painter but chose to explore other disciplines and found herself challenged by the technical aspects of woodblock printing. Stewart traveled to Japan in 1957 and studied with master printmakers in Kobe and Kyoto. She experimented with ideas and techniques and combined paint, silkscreen, and printing from a veneer board. She received her Master’s degree from Yale University, and went on to teach at Monticello College in Illinois and the Maryland Institute College of Art. While on sabbatical in Africa, she contracted malaria, and died that same year.

Reba Stewart (American, 1930–1971)
Mountain Range
Color woodcut, issued by the International Graphic Arts Society (IGAS), 1957
Norrie Fund

This print was issued by IGAS the year Stewart spent in Japan. It is a surrealist image rooted in nature, printed in a subtle combination of nine colors, blending aspects of Western art with the ancient woodcut techniques she studied in Japan.

 

Carol Summers (American, born 1925)

Travels to Italy, India, and Mexico left lasting impressions on Carol Summers. He was deeply impressed by the art of India, particularly the vivid miniatures of the Malwai school. His titles often mention places, not so much to identify a specific geographical site, but rather to serve as a reminder and an evocation, through color and images, of a time, a place, a people. Summers generally works with a single block, and the paper is cut slightly smaller than the wood matrix. He places the paper on top of the block and runs an ink-charged roller over it (he virtually paints with the roller). The ink is deposited on the paper where the roller comes into contact with the raised woodcut beneath. He then sprays the printed sheet with mineral spirits to blur and soften the inks of various colors, which meld with each other and the paper. Some woodcuts are printed on both sides of the sheet, saturating the paper with color. Currently living in California, Carol Summers continues to make woodcuts.

Carol Summers (American, born 1925)
Rajasthan
Color woodcut, 1967
Bequest of Una Johnson

The intense reds in this print recall Summers’s journey to Asia.

 

Cy Twombly (American, born 1928)

Cy Twombly was born in Lexington, Virginia, and studied at Washington and Lee University in Lexington, the School of the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, and the Art Students League in New York. In 1951–52 he spent a semester at Black Mountain College, a liberal arts college in North Carolina whose founders, among them Josef Albers, encouraged an experimental, broad-minded, and intellectually creative spirit among its community, which included Robert Rauschenberg, John Cage, and Merce Cunningham. The college also played a significant role in the revival of small-press production, initiated by some of the poets on staff, such as Charles Olson, Robert Creeley, and Robert Duncan. Twombly’s drawings and paintings are compositions of highly personal gestural “handwriting,” and he has never been particularly inclined toward printmaking, feeling that the technical aspects impose too many constraints on his mode of expression.

Cy Twombly (American, born 1928)
Cover for The Song of the Border Guard by Robert Duncan
Linoleum cut, Black Mountain Graphics Workshop, Black Mountain College, North Carolina, 1952
Wallach Fund

This linoleum cut is an interesting example both of Twombly’s initial exposure to Abstract Expressionism at Black Mountain, and of his endeavor to translate his style into a print medium that is so distant from the immediacy of his preferred methods of drawing and painting.

 

Richard O. Tyler (American, 1926–1983?)

Richard O. Tyler was born in Lansing, Michigan, and during World War II served in the U.S. Army Parachute Infantry in the Pacific Theater. After a year of civil service duty in Tokyo he returned to the United States. From 1948 to 1952 he studied at the Art Institute of Chicago, and in 1958 he established Uranian Press, on New York’s Lower East Side, where he and other artists created hand-printed books, posters, broadsides, and print editions that he sold from a pushcart. Tyler filled the roles of editor, printer, woodcut artist, and writer, and also had keen interests in astrology and Jungian theory. Little is known of Uranian Press after 1959, but it appears that by the 1970s it had become Uranian Phalanstery, where Tyler, then known as The Rev. Relytor, practiced ritual Tibetan tattooing.

Richard O. Tyler (American, 1926–1983?)
Jupiter, from The Planets
Portfolio of 20 color woodcuts with patterned cloth-bound cover
New York: Uranian Press, 1958
Gift of the artist

Tyler’s description of this portfolio is as follows: “The colors used are red, blue, and the overprinted combination of these two colors. Red represents the Logos principle, and is used on the Sun, Mercury, and Mars. Blue represents the Eros principle, and is used on the Moon and Venus. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are three color prints. All copy is in red and overprinted on the second plate, making two prints per planet.”

 

Ansei Uchima (American, 1921–2000)

The work of Ansei Uchima reflects a complex fusion of Western and Eastern artistic traditions. Born in California, Uchima returned to Japan at age nineteen, and after World War II studied painting and traditional Japanese printmaking. Through his job as translator for Oliver Statler, an American print collector, who was interviewing artists for a book on contemporary Japanese prints, he was introduced to the sosaku-hanga (creative print) movement, which incorporated a Western modernist aesthetic. Like other artists in the sosaku-hanga school, Uchima carved, inked, and printed his own wood blocks, enjoying the accidents and unexpected opportunities that arose spontaneously from interaction with the wood block. His first prints, beginning in 1957, drew from nature and the world around him. After he returned to the United States in 1959, his floating, calligraphic compositions, characteristic of sosaku-hanga, suggested the growing influence of Abstract Expressionism. Uchima used Japanese paper made especially for him by a Japanese master papermaker and National Treasure, Ichibei Iwano.

Ansei Uchima (American, 1921–2000)
Joy
Color woodcut, issued by the International Graphic Arts Society (IGAS), 1958
Norrie Fund

Ansei Uchima (American, 1921–2000)
By the Lake
Color woodcut, issued by the International Graphic Arts Society (IGAS), 1961
Norrie Fund

 

Lynd Ward (American, 1905–1985)

Lynd Ward was a pioneer in narrative illustration, known for his proficiency in creating “stories without words.” Born in Chicago to a Methodist minister father, he spent his childhood in Illinois, Massachusetts, and New Jersey. He attended Teacher’s College, Columbia University, and after graduation traveled to Leipzig, Germany, to attend the National Academy for Graphic Arts, where he learned wood engraving. There he met Belgian artist Frans Masereel, who introduced him to the idea of a story told only through images. Returning to the United States, he settled in New Jersey, where he began creating “wordless” books, composed solely of wood engravings. He went on to illustrate more than one hundred books, including classics for the Limited Editions Club and several children’s books.

Lynd Ward (American, 1905–1985)
Bridges at Echo Bay
Wood engraving, 1947
Gift of the Richard A. Florsheim Art Fund
© Robin Ward Savage and Nanda Ward


Lynd Ward (American, 1905–1985)
Undercliff
Wood engraving, issued by The Woodcut Society, New York, 1948
Norrie Fund, purchased on subscription to The Woodcut Society, New York

Lynd Ward (American, 1905–1985)
North of the Height of Land
Wood engraving, 1950
Gift of the Richard A. Florsheim Art Fund

 

Adja Yunkers (American, born Latvia, 1900–1983)

Early artistic influences on Adja Yunkers’s woodcuts—Wassily Kandinsky, Franz Marc, the German Expressionists, and Emil Nolde—reflect his early peripatetic life. After fighting in the Russian Revolution he fled to Germany, then traveled to Cuba and Mexico, before settling in Sweden in 1939, when he encountered Picasso’s work and became intrigued by the Surrealist use of metaphor and myth. Yunkers later claimed: “History for me started with my landing in New York in 1947.” There he taught at the New School, joined a lively coterie of European avant-garde artists, and, through Louis Schanker, met other innovative woodcut artists. Both in New York and in New Mexico, where he set up a workshop, Rio Grande Graphics, Yunkers produced numerous monotypes and color woodcuts of great complexity and increasing scale, built up with layers of opaque and translucent inks, each block carrying more than one color. Sometimes he used nontraditional tools on the block, such as a wire-brush, to create texture. He did not print uniform editions, but inked and printed the blocks differently each time, occasionally even modifying the blocks during printing.

Adja Yunkers (American, born Latvia, 1900–1983)
Blue Lovers
Color woodcut on black tissue, 1945

Adja Yunkers (American, born Latvia, 1900–1983)
Head of a Traveler, from a portfolio of five color woodcuts
New York: Ted Gotthelf at Rio Grande Graphics, 1952
Norrie Fund, purchased from Ted Gotthelf

Adja Yunkers (American, born Latvia, 1900–1983)
Miss Ever-Ready, from a portfolio of five color woodcuts
New York: Ted Gotthelf at Rio Grande Graphics, 1952
Norrie Fund, purchased from Ted Gotthelf

Adja Yunkers (American, born Latvia, 1900–1983)
Three Personages
, from a portfolio of five color woodcuts
New York: Ted Gotthelf at Rio Grande Graphics, 1952
Norrie Fund, purchased from Ted Gotthelf

Adja Yunkers (American, born Latvia, 1900–1983)
Composition
Color woodcut, issued by the International Graphic Arts Society (IGAS), 1956
Norrie Fund

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